I highly recommend reading Nassim Taleb’s book “Antifragile – Things that Gain from Disorder”.
Taleb explores the notion of “antifragility”, something that is the opposite of “fragile”. One such example is exercise: people build muscles by stressing them with hard labour. This is different from the concept of “robustness”, which is an indifference to stressors, and a notion that people often consider, falsely, to be the opposite of “fragile”.
Taleb often talks about “convexity” and “concavity”, which is a second-order effect relating to how something responds non-linearly to small changes in inputs or assumptions.
It’s a very thought-provoking book.